Where unsigned articles have been ascribed to Sam Clemens by major researchers, I have followed their lead but specified, “attributed.” “Sam” when shown without surname is used throughout to mean Mark Twain/ Samuel L. Clemens; likewise “Livy” designates Olivia Louise Clemens; “Susy” has been chosen for Olivia Susan Clemens over the spelling “Susie,” which is seen in earlier references to her. “Jane Clemens” is used for Sam’s mother, “Pamela” or “Pamela Moffett” for his sister, “Orion” for his brother. For certain dominant people in Sam’s life, or dominant within certain periods, last names only are given: Howells, Twichell, Cable, etc. Middle names are now given if known; if not, a middle initial; some middle initials are omitted, when reference is clearly to one person, such as Hjalmar Boyesen. “Frank” is often given for “Francis”; “Joe” for Joseph, when the person was a familiar figure in Sam’s life, such as Joe Twichell, Joe Goodman, Frank Bliss, etc. There are exceptions, as when H.H. Rogers is used for Henry Huttleston Rogers, etc.
MLA formatting is followed for in -text and Works Cited, with exceptions made for MT “standard” abbreviations such as MTBus or MTLTP (see abbreviations), and follow the MT Project’s conventions when possible. Use of [brackets] for in-text citations, as well as editor’s inserts within quoted text. When the source uses [brackets] these are replaced by (parentheses).
Some exceptions are made to standard “Twain scholarly convention,” such as MTL with volume numbers used for the MTP volumes, whereas this abbreviation in the past was used for Paine’s volumes of letters, which I cite as MTLP, if I use them at all. A few conventions are modified, such as LM instead of LoM for Life on the Mississippi. See Abbreviations for the full list.
Nearly every date given requires a citation, though some are encyclopedic in nature, or calculated from sources. Because both primary and secondary sources are used, errors and omissions have inevitably been introduced. Hopefully, more study of primary sources will amend such shortcomings.
/and – Sam’s nearly always wrote “&” rather than “and.” Various editors have handled this either way; as early as Paine in his 1917 two-volume work, Mark Twain’s Letters, replaced his “&” signs with “and”s. The 1969 MTHHR also did this, though the later six volumes of MTL left the “&” signs in. Because I have chosen to cite the most accessible source for the researcher, MTHHR and page number are cited for Clemens’ letters to Rogers, though text may have been taken from MTP transcriptions, which do carry the “&” signs. This matter does not affect meaning in any case.
– This symbol was used in Vol. I for incoming letters not reviewed. (Not used for Vol. 2 & 3)
The few opinions on events or interpretation of an entry follow all citation designators as well as extra information following “Note”; These remarks are offered as simply one man’s view, and every effort has been made to keep them short and pithy, without obstacle to the meaning of the listing. Of course, I hold title to many more opinions than the few exposed here. Admittedly, a work of this